Our servicing and subservicing activities relating to our mortgage loan portfolio involve the management (e.g., calculation, collection and remittance) of mortgage payments, escrow accounts, insurance claims and customer service. For certain accounts, we perform specialty servicing activities utilizing a “high-touch” model to establish and maintain borrower contact and facilitate loss-mitigation strategies in an attempt to keep defaulted borrowers in their homes. Borrower interactions rely on loss mitigation strategies that apply predictive analytics to identify risk factors and severity grades to determine appropriate loss mitigation options and strategies. We assign a single point of contact to accounts experiencing difficulties in order to make collection calls and coordinate loss mitigation efforts. The single point of contact allows us to build one-on-one relationships with our consumers. We generally follow GSE and agency servicing guidelines (as well as other credit-owner guidelines) to implement a standardized loss mitigation process, which may include loan modification programs for borrowers experiencing temporary hardships. Our loan modification offerings include short-term interest rate reductions and/or payment deferrals and, until recently, also included loan modifications through HAMP, a federally sponsored loan modification program established to assist eligible home owners with loan modifications on their home mortgage debt. When loan modification and other efforts are unable to cure a default, we pursue alternative property resolutions prior to pursuing foreclosure, including short sales (in which the borrower agrees to sell the property for less than the loan balance and the difference is forgiven) and deeds-in-lieu of foreclosure (in which the borrower agrees to convey the property deed outside of foreclosure proceedings).
With respect to mortgage loans for which we own the MSR, we perform mortgage servicing primarily in accordance with Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac and Ginnie Mae servicing guidelines, as applicable. In 2018, we earned approximately 32%, 12% and 3% of our total revenues from servicing Fannie Mae, Ginnie Mae and Freddie Mac residential loans, respectively. Under our numerous master servicing agreements and subservicing contracts, we agree to service loans in accordance with servicing standards that the credit owners and/or subservicing clients may change from time to time. These agreements and contracts can typically be terminated by the counterparties thereto, with or without cause. Refer to Item 1A. Risk Factors for a discussion of certain risks relating to our master servicing agreements and subservicing contracts.
We have acquired servicing rights in bulk transactions, pursuant to co-issue arrangements and in connection with business acquisitions, and by retaining servicing rights relating to mortgage loans we originate. As the owner of servicing rights, we act on behalf of loan owners and have the contractual right to receive a stream of cash flows (expressed as a percentage of unpaid principal balance) in exchange for performing specified servicing functions and temporarily advancing funds to meet contractual payment requirements for loan owners and to pay taxes, insurance and foreclosure costs on delinquent or defaulted mortgages. As a subservicer, we earn a contractual fee on a per-loan basis and we are reimbursed for servicing advances we make on delinquent or defaulted mortgages, generally in the following month. We can earn incentive fees based on the performance of certain loan pools serviced by us and also have the ability, under certain circumstances, to earn modification fees and other program-specific incentives, and ancillary fees, such as late fees. Our specialty servicing fees typically include a base servicing fee and activity-based fees for the successful completion of default-related services.
The value of a servicing right asset is based on the present value of the stream of expected servicing-related cash flows from a loan and is largely dependent on market interest rates, prepayment speeds and delinquency performance. Generally, a rising interest rate environment drives a decline in prepayment speeds and thus increases the value of servicing rights, while a declining interest rate environment drives increases in prepayment speeds and thus reduces the value of servicing rights.
Our Servicing segment procured voluntary insurance for residential loan borrowers, lender-placed hazard insurance for residential loan borrowers and credit owners and other ancillary products through our principal insurance agency until the sale of such agency and substantially all of our insurance agency business on February 1, 2017. This agency earned commissions on insurance sales, and commissions were earned on lender-placed insurance in certain circumstances and if permitted under applicable laws and regulations. Mortgage loans require borrowers to maintain insurance coverage to protect the collateral securing the loan. To the extent a borrower fails to maintain the necessary coverage, we are generally contractually required to add the borrower’s property to our own hazard insurance policy and charge the borrower his/her allocated premium amount. Though we are licensed nationwide to sell insurance products on behalf of third-party insurance carriers, we neither underwrote insurance policies nor adjudicated claims.
Insurance revenues were historically aligned with the size of our servicing portfolio. However, due to Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac restrictions that became effective on June 1, 2014, as well as other regulatory and litigation developments with respect to lender-placed insurance, our insurance commissions related to lender-placed insurance policies began to decrease materially beginning in 2014. On February 1, 2017, we completed the sale of our principal insurance agency and substantially all of our insurance agency business. As a result of this sale, we no longer receive any insurance commissions on lender-placed insurance policies. Commencing February 1, 2017, another insurance agency owned by us (and retained by us following the aforementioned sale) began to provide insurance marketing services to third-party insurance agencies and carriers with respect to voluntary insurance policies, including hazard insurance. This insurance agency receives premium-based commissions for its insurance marketing services.