The RMS master repurchase agreements included in the DHCP DIP Warehouse Facilities contain customary events of default and covenants, the most significant of which are financial covenants. Financial covenants that are most sensitive to the operating results of our subsidiaries and resulting financial position are minimum tangible net worth requirements, indebtedness to tangible net worth ratio requirements, and minimum liquidity requirements. In August 2018, the liquidity covenants included in each of RMS' master repurchase agreements then in effect were amended to reduce the liquidity requirements for the remaining term of each agreement. RMS was in compliance with the terms of each of its master repurchase agreements, including financial covenants, at December 31, 2018.
Reverse Loan Securitizations
We transfer reverse loans that we have originated or purchased through the Ginnie Mae HMBS issuance process. The proceeds from the transfer of the HMBS are accounted for as a secured borrowing and are classified on the consolidated balance sheets as HMBS related obligations. The proceeds from the transfer are used to repay borrowings under our master repurchase agreements. At December 31, 2018, we had $7.0 billion in unpaid principal balance outstanding on the HMBS related obligations. At December 31, 2018, $6.8 billion in unpaid principal balance of reverse loans and real estate owned was pledged as collateral to the HMBS beneficial interest holders, and are not available to satisfy the claims of our creditors. Ginnie Mae, as guarantor of the HMBS, is obligated to the holders of the HMBS in an instance of RMS default on its servicing obligations, or when the proceeds realized on HECMs are insufficient to repay all outstanding HMBS related obligations. Ginnie Mae has recourse to RMS in connection with certain claims relating to the performance and obligations of RMS as both an issuer of HMBS and a servicer of HECMs underlying HMBS.
Borrower remittances received on the reverse loans, if any, proceeds received from the sale of real estate owned and our funds used to repurchase reverse loans are used to reduce the HMBS related obligations by making payments to Ginnie Mae, who will then remit the payments to the holders of the HMBS. The maturity of the HMBS related obligations is directly affected by the liquidation of the reverse loans or liquidation of real estate owned and events of default as stipulated in the reverse loan agreements with borrowers. Refer to the section below for additional information on repurchases of reverse loans.
HMBS Issuer Obligations
As an HMBS issuer, we assume certain obligations related to each security issued. The most significant obligation is the requirement to purchase loans out of the Ginnie Mae securitization pools once the outstanding principal balance of the related HECM is equal to or greater than 98% of the maximum claim amount. Performing repurchased loans are conveyed to HUD and payment is received from HUD typically within a short timeframe of repurchase. HUD reimburses us for the outstanding principal balance on the loan up to the maximum claim amount. We bear the risk of exposure if the amount of the outstanding principal balance on a loan exceeds the maximum claim amount. Recent regulatory changes introduced by HUD increased the requirements for completing an assignment to HUD. These new requirements may increase the time interval between when a loan is repurchased and when the assignment claim is filed with HUD, and inability to meet such requirements could preclude assignment. During this period, accruals for interest, HUD-required mortgage insurance payments, and borrower draws may cause the unpaid balance on the loan to increase and ultimately exceed the maximum claim amount. Nonperforming repurchased loans are generally liquidated through foreclosure and subsequent sale of real estate owned. Loans are considered nonperforming upon events such as, but not limited to, the death of the mortgagor, the mortgagor no longer occupying the property as their principal residence, or the property taxes or insurance not being paid.
We currently rely upon certain master repurchase agreements and operating cash flows, to the extent necessary, to repurchase these Ginnie Mae loans. Given continued growth in the number and amount of our reverse loan repurchases, we may continue to seek additional, or expansion of existing, master repurchase or similar agreements to provide financing capacity for future required loan repurchases. The timing and amount of our obligation to repurchase HECMs is uncertain as repurchase is predicated on certain factors such as whether or not a borrower event of default occurs prior to the HECM reaching the mandatory repurchase threshold under which we are obligated to repurchase the loan.