The yield on reverse loans and any change in fair value are recorded in net fair value gains on reverse loans and related HMBS obligations on the consolidated statements of comprehensive income (loss). Similarly, the yield on and change in fair value of mortgage loans related to the Non-Residual Trusts, and mortgage loans related to the Residual Trusts subsequent to the adoption of fair value accounting until their deconsolidation, are recorded in other net fair value gains (losses) on the consolidated statements of comprehensive income (loss). The yield on reverse loans, mortgage loans related to the Non-Residual Trusts and mortgage loans related to the Residual Trusts includes recognition of contractual interest income that is expected to be collected based on the stated interest rates of the loans, as well as the accretion of fair value.
Charged-off loans represent a portfolio of defaulted consumer and residential loans that were acquired at substantial discounts to face value. Charged-off loans are consumers' unpaid financial commitments and include residential mortgage loans, auto loans and other unsecured consumer loans. The accretion of fair value associated with charged-off loans and any change in fair value are recorded in other revenues on the consolidated statements of comprehensive income (loss). There is no contractual interest income recognized in relation to charged-off loans.
Purchases and originations of and payments received on residential loans held for investment are included in investing activities on the consolidated statements of cash flows.
Residential Loans Held for Sale
Residential loans held for sale represent mortgage loans originated or acquired by the Company with the intent to sell. These loans are originated or acquired primarily for purposes of selling into the secondary market or to private investors as whole loans with servicing rights either retained or sold. The Company has elected to carry mortgage loans held for sale at fair value. The yield on the loans, any change in fair value, and gains or losses recognized upon sale of the loans are recorded in net gains on sales of loans on the consolidated statements of comprehensive income (loss). The yield on the loans includes recognition of contractual interest income that is expected to be collected based on the stated interest rates of the loans, as well as the accretion of fair value. Loan origination fees are recorded in other revenues within the consolidated statements of comprehensive income (loss) when earned and related costs are recognized in general and administrative expenses when incurred. All activity related to residential loans held for sale are included in operating activities on the consolidated statements of cash flows.
The Company’s agreements with GSEs and other third parties include standard representations and warranties related to the loans the Company sells. The representations and warranties require adherence to origination and underwriting guidelines, including, but not limited to, the validity of the lien securing the loan, property eligibility, borrower credit, income and asset requirements, and compliance with applicable federal, state and local laws. Breaches of representations and warranties, with the exception of certain loans originated under HARP, are generally enforceable at any time over the life of the loan. If the Company is unable to cure such breach, the purchaser of the loan may require the Company to repurchase such loan for the unpaid principle balance, accrued interest, and related advances, and in any event, the Company must indemnify such purchaser for certain losses and expenses incurred by such purchaser in connection with such breach. In the case the Company repurchases the loan, the Company bears any subsequent credit loss on the loan. The Company’s credit loss may be reduced by any recourse it has to correspondent lenders that, in turn, have sold such residential loans to the Company and breached similar or other representations and warranties. In such event, the Company has the right to seek a recovery of related repurchase losses from that correspondent lender. The Company actively contests claims to the extent that the Company does not consider the claims to be valid. The Company seeks to manage the risk of repurchase and associated credit exposure through the Company's underwriting and quality assurance practices.
The Company records a provision for losses relating to such representations and warranties as part of its loan sale transactions at the time the loan is sold in accordance with the accounting guidance for guarantees. The provision is a reduction in the net gains on sales of loans on the consolidated statements of comprehensive income (loss). The method used to estimate the liability for representations and warranties is a function of the representations and warranties given and considers a combination of factors, including, but not limited to, historical defect rates, projected repurchase rates, projected resale values, and the probability of reimbursement by the correspondent loan seller. The liability, which is recorded in payables and accrued liabilities on the consolidated balance sheets, is updated based on changes in estimates, with those changes recorded as a component of general and administrative expenses on the consolidated statements of comprehensive income (loss). The level of the liability for representations and warranties requires considerable management judgment. The level of residential loan repurchase losses is dependent on economic factors and external conditions that may change over the lives of the underlying loans.